Cloning

The Genetic Cloning Process

Before we discuss the possibilities of human genetic cloning we must first understand exactly what cloning is and the different types. Not all forms of genetic cloning are associated with cloned babies and Frankenstein tomatoes, other forms of cloning have been used in our laboratories reliably for a number of years and have provided a wealth of insight into our understanding of genetics.

The three type of cloning are recombinant DNA cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. Lets consider each one of these in turn.

Recombinant DNA cloning or gene cloning refers to the process by which a fragment of DNA is transferred from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid or a virus. Plasmids are self-replicating extra-chromosomal circular DNA molecules, distinct from the normal bacterial genome and can be used to make many copies of the gene. These genetic elements can then be inserted into a cell of interest and the function of the gene of interest studied.
Reproductive Cloning Process

Reproductive cloning refers to the process by which an animal is created which had the same nuclear DNA as a previously existing animal. This is accomplished by the removal of the DNA containing nucleus of an egg and its replacement by the DNA from another cell. The egg is then stimulated to divide and following a number of divisions it can be transferred into the uterus of a suitable female host until its birth. Reproductive cloning has been around for a number of years, with the tadpole being the first animal to be cloned in 1952. However the advent of Dolly the sheep, the first large mammal to be cloned by Scottish scientists in 1997, led to the belief that one-day humans might be cloned. Cloned animals are not exact twins however as despite sharing copies of the nuclear DNA, another source of DNA the mitochondria are derived from the original egg. This may be of consequence as mitochondrial DNA is believed to play a role in the aging process. A significant problem of reproductive cloning is its inefficiency, more than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring. In addition little is known of the long-term effects of cloning with many cloned animals dying prematurely.
Therapeutic cloning Process

Therapeutic cloning, or embryo cloning refers to the production of human embryos for research purposes. The goal of this is not to create cloned babies but to harvest the stem cells of the embryo that have the potential to develop into almost any cell in the body. The extraction of stem cells from the blastocyte form of the egg results in its destruction. This obviously throws up a number of ethical issues however researchers believe that these cells can be used to treat diseases such as heart disease and Alzheimer's.
Human Cloning

The idea that scientists can `play God` is horrifying to all however the possibility to fight disease and alleviate the medical hardships of people should not be overlooked. Properly monitored with continued research, the technology of cloning can and will provide us with the means to deal with the medical issues of the twenty first century.

The Genetic Cloning Process

 Before we discuss the possibilities of human genetic cloning we must first understand exactly what cloning is and the different types. Not all forms of genetic cloning are associated with cloned babies and Frankenstein tomatoes, other forms of cloning have been used in our laboratories reliably for a number of years and have provided a wealth of insight into our understanding of genetics.


The three type of cloning are recombinant DNA cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. Lets consider each one of these in turn.

Recombinant DNA Cloning Process

Recombinant DNA cloning or gene cloning refers to the process by which a fragment of DNA is transferred from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid or a virus. Plasmids are self-replicating extra-chromosomal circular DNA molecules, distinct from the normal bacterial genome and can be used to make many copies of the gene. These genetic elements can then be inserted into a cell of interest and the function of the gene of interest studied.

Reproductive Cloning Process

Reproductive cloning refers to the process by which an animal is created which haad the same nuclear DNA as a previously existing animal. This is accomplished by the removal of the DNA containing nucleus of an egg and its replacement by the DNA from another cell. The egg is then stimulated to divide and following a number of divisions it can be transferred into the uterus of a suitable female host until its birth. Reproductive cloning has been around for a number of years, with the tadpole being the first animal to be cloned in 1952. However the advent of Dolly the sheep, the first large mammal to be cloned by Scottish scientists in 1997, led to the belief that one-day humans might be cloned. Cloned animals are not exact twins however as despite sharing copies of the nuclear DNA, another source of DNA the mitochondria are derived from the original egg. This may be of consequence as mitochondrial DNA is believed to play a role in the aging process. A significant problem of reproductive cloning is its inefficiency, more than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring. In addition little is known of the long-term effects of cloning with many cloned animals dying prematurely.

Therapeutic cloning Process

Therapeutic cloning, or embryo cloning refers to the production of human embryos for research purposes. The goal of this is not to create cloned babies but to harvest the stem cells of the embryo that have the potential to develop into almost any cell in the body. The extraction of stem cells from the blastocyte form of the egg results in its destruction. This obviously throws up a number of ethical issues however researchers believe that these cells can be used to treat diseases such as heart disease and Alzheimer's.

Human Cloning

The idea that scientists can `play God` is horrifying to all however the possibility to fight disease and alleviate the medical hardships of people should not be overlooked. Properly monitored with continued research, the technology of cloning can and will provide us with the means to deal with the medical issues of the twenty first century.


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"hope that you can impove this study...and somehow it will really help the peopl and not for the personal interest only."

OlRaM

"Hey guys im 14 and an atheist, i think that the idea of "playing God" should be taken seriously, i think that if we did use thereapuetic clonig it would help the evolution of mankind as it would narrow down our diseases, but i dislike the idea of being able to clone each other, being able to contort nature/evolutions ways is not how it was meant to be, just look at what we have done to earth already :/"

LambOfGod

"This paper was very informative. Well Done! P.S> No need to be rude people "

Kacie

"This information was swell, made me learn cool things and it was as great as chocolate when you feel like chocolate (: THANKYOU :D"

Bob

"As somebody who doesn\'t believe in god, I think ur all bein a bit thick sayin we shouldn\'t end some of da major problems in life coz \'it would make him angry...\' ???"

Brett

"You fools gotta put ur minds in to perspective. Cloning can totally change the world as we know. "

ABACAAB

"wow!! keep it up...... u just helped me complete my speech man . Awesome!! "

Rutvik Shukla

"HOw can you not believ in god"

rocket man

"I think people should take Cloning more seriously and not just perceive it negatively as it is about "playing God." Cloning could very much alter the world in a couple of years. (Admin: Does God clone anyway? I guess with the whole Adam rib thing you could say so...)"

support cloning.

"ok guys about this playing god stuff, seriously how can someone play god. ok ill admit i do not believe in god but even if i did does the human race not have to evolve and better itself to survive. this may mean taking advantage of mother nature to the best of our abilities. "

dude

"cloning should not be continued, because we are already overpopulated as it is so if we start cloning, think how much more we will be destroying our earth. this will also move us faster towards the end of the earth. i think this should be discontinued and all reaserch distroyed."

Alanah

"Cloning will allow those of the future do live longer is that not what most of us are looking for a long and full life."

Surging

"Good but not enough......."

Farrah_Nahrain University

"Childish and ilresearched, next time when you do some thing like that, do your research so i don;t waste 5 min of my time reading this worthles article made for the ignorint that doesnt know anything about cloning. "

Kellen harvad university science

"kind didn't help. Do your research, this topic was wrong and stupid, either try to make a good topic or dont post it at all. :("

Kellen harvad university science

"I found this page informative... but I would like to know if there has been any HUMAN cloning that has worked but has been kept quiet"

sarah

"it helps alot"

daniela

"My name is Holly L. Holden, a current student at James H. Groves adult Education, and I am writing a paper on the process of cloning. However, my opinion on the matter is that I do not support the idea of aborting human life ( even if it was not in the womb of a woman), but at the same time, I want to see all the suffering people in this world to finally have an alternative solution to their suffering. "

Holly L. Holden

"This was not helpful at all except knowing the basic definitions of the three different types of cloning. I was looking for more details like the two different views of the three types of cloning."

Ara

"I'm a yr10 high school student in australia. For a research report on cloning, this is quite helpful. It doesn't give much info though so i had to investigate some of the processes further. but thanks anyway."

Grant, Aussie Yr10 student

"We should take genetic enginering very seriously and cautiously. This could very much alter the world as a whole that we live in today."

Anonymous

"not very intersesting!! didn't really help me!!"

Zoe'

"im doing a senior thesis on Cloning and to be honest i know nothing on it is there a way to dumb it down for me"

tyler

"Cloning is immoral ans should be stopped immediately. It kills embryos, which is an early stage of a baby's life in the womb. God is the creater. We have no right to create life. Therapeutic cloning has a high risk of rejection and can produce cancers and tumors. All cloning is wrong. "

Emily

"Cloning is the answer for today's demand. With this latest brainchild of human, we should be able to combat poverty and malnutrition. "

Andy

"I need to know the exact method in cloning for a research project. Can you supply this for me?"

anon

"cloning is a good process of helping to save peoples lives but on the other hand it is a negative point because your playing with god."

farah

"This cloning page was great . I really liked it because of its content. it is incuding all important information in a little word that was main reason i liked it."

Magan Vashisht

"Very interesting and useful Thanx XD"

anon

"Can you clarify what really does hormone play the role in the cloning process ? And it is really important as the DNA in this process ????"

tan...

"This site didn't help me at all. Waste of time browsing through"

Sign

"i found thjis very instesting. its just what i needed for a project i\'m doing in shcool"

jono

"thanks, awesome info. Helped me with my project!"

Someone

"i think there is a number of scientists who are trying to act like god."

a man

"I love this page! It gives me a clear idea of cloning and its process. Thanks!!"

Rhonda S. Williams

"Too many people try to play god"

Me

"i wanted to know where cloning is used. what places?"

a.judy

"I found your information very helpfull, keep it up"

jay ferdinand

"Could you tell us which website you think this is copied from? This article was written by a medical student specifically for this site. Maybe some other website has copied us? We do occasionally republish articles from other sites, but always with permission and full acknowledgement. (edit: whoops, I get it now...)"

Admin

"you've just copied this from another website"

jgh